Feedback Christiane Paul
Director of Media Studies Graduate Programs and Associate Professor of Media Studies, The New School, New York; Adjunct Curator, Whitney Museum of American Art, New York.
Christiane Paul. Press conference LABoral. Image: LABoral
Feedback Clara Boj & Diego Díaz
(Murcia, 1975) Live and work in Valencia
Feedback C.E.B. Reas
C.E.B. Reas lives and works in Los Angeles
Feedback Be Careful Who Sees You When You Dream (2005)
Airborne installation, live video, video screens, wireless media, red helium weather balloons.
Feedback Max Payne Cheats Only (2005)
2 DVD Projections. 3 metres wide each
Feedback I Shot Andy Warhol (2002)
TV set, videogame console, software, gun. Courtesy: the artist and Team Gallery, New York.
Feedback Participation TV (1969, réplica 1984)
Philco Color lite TV set, 2 microphones N.Y. amplifiers. 31 x 32 x 25 cm. Courtesy: The David Bermant Foundation: Color, Light, Motion.
Feedback House Plants (1984)
Metal, plastic, microprocessor. Courtesy: The David Bermant Foundation: Color, Light, Motion.
Feedback Musicale London (1965)
Modified 1968. Metal, wood, magnets, needles, guitar string, electricity. Courtesy: The David Bermant Foundation: Color, Light, Motion.
Feedback Death Before Disko (2005/06)
Installation, sculpture, computer, Internet connection.
Feedback Ein Lichtspiel schwarz weiss grau (1930)
DVD. Duration: 5’ 25”. Courtesy: Bauhaus Archiv, Berlin/Hattula Moholy-Nagy.
Feedback Rotoreliefs (1965)
Offset lithographic drawings on both sides of 6 discs, 2 magnetized disc frames, felt covered wood frame, motorized machine. Courtesy: The David Bermant Foundation: Color, Light, Motion.
Feedback Telematic Dreaming (1992)
Beds, video cameras, projector, monitors, computer, video link.
Feedback n-Cha(n)t (2001)
Networked installation: computers, monitors, microphones.
Feedback SAM (Sound-Activated Mobile) (1968)
Aluminium, fibreglass, microphones, electro-hydraulic servo-valves, electronic circuits. Courtesy: Olga Ihnatowicz.
Feedback Condensation Cube (1963)
Plexiglas, water. 76 x 76 x 76 cm. Edition of 5. Courtesy: Collecció MACBA, Museu d’Art Contemporani de Barcelona (Gift of the National Committee and Board of Trustees Whitney Museum of American Art).
Feedback Shockbot Corejulio (2004)
Computer, electronics, light boxes
Feedback Osmose (1995)
John Harrison (custom VR software), Georges Mauro (computer graphics), Dorota Blaszczak (sonic architecture/programming), Rick Bidlack (sound composition/programming), Colin Griffi ths (exhibition manager), Tanya Das Neves (assistant to the artist). Virtual reality environment, head mounted display, real-time motion tracking, software, computers, projection.
Feedback (2007)
Interactive installation: computer vision tracking system, robotic video projector, Web interface.
Feedback At Home (Traffic Series) (2004)
Table top, miniature models, video cameras, computer-controlled video switcher, projection. Courtesy: Galerie Guy Bärtschi, Geneva.
Feedback Short Films about Flying (2003)
Software, installation / projection. Courtesy: Mobile Home, London.
Feedback Ludlow Street (2007)
Live webcam feed, projection
Feedback The Horny Children (2004)
Sensors, computers, metal, electronics, motors. 5 Robots (100 x 50 x 33 cm each).
Feedback Tokyo Gal (1978)
Electric motor, flywheel, radio parts, feather. Courtesy: The David Bermant Foundation: Color, Light, Motion.
Feedback Spinning Shaft (1983)
Metal, neon, microcontroller. Courtesy: The David Bermant Foundation: Color, Light, Motion
Feedback Free Network Visible Network (2004)
Installation, model, software, projection, posters, wearable computers with head mounted displays.
Feedback Water bowls: moon ˜drop˜sound˜oil (2006)
In collaboration with: John Houck (Software Art), Tyler Adams (Sound). Support: James Gimzewski, Eric Hoek, Osman Khan, Glenn Murphy, Anne Niemetz, John Rooney, Brandon Stow, Paul Wilkinson. Networked installation: computers, projectors, light, speakers, polycarbonate plastic bowls, tap water, used motor oil, copper coins, sensors, underwater microphones.
Feedback [giantJoystick] (2006)
Sculpture, software, projection. 275 x 275 cm. Commissioned by HTTP Gallery, London, for Game/Play.
Feedback Fort Paladin: America’s Army (2003)
Sculpture, computers, software. 188 x 196 cm.
Feedback Open Score (1966)
DVD. Duration: 11’. Courtesy: Barbro Schultz Lundestam / Billy Kluver and Julie Martin for Experiments in Art and Technology.
Feedback Inter Dis-Communication Machine (1993)
Video camera, transmitters, head mounted displays, batteries, feathers.
Feedback Dialogue: goggles (1968)
Glass, metal, rubber. 20 x 30 x 10 cm. Courtesy: Clark Family Collection.
Feedback AARON
Computer, software, projector
Feedback Process 4 (Software 1) (2005) / Process 4 (Image 2) (2005)/ Seoul B (2004)
Process 4 (Software 1). Software. Process 4 (Image 2). Process 4 (Software 1). Software. Process 4 (Image 2). Inkjet print on Hahnemuehle photo ray. 72.6 x 72.6 cm. Seoul B. Interactive software based on Process 4. Commissioned by W-Hotel, Seoul, South Korea. Courtesy: Bitforms Gallery, New York.
Feedback Wall Drawing #305 (1977)
The location of one hundred random specific points. Wall drawing, black pencil description, black crayon points. 950 x 350 cm. First drawn by Sol LeWitt, Jo Watanebe. First installation: Art & Architecture building, Yale University, New Haven.
Feedback Interruptions (1968/9) / 144 Trapeziums (1974)
Interruptions. Computer graphic, ink, paper, 2 variations, both sole copies. 28.5 x 28.5 cm each. 144 Trapeziums. Computer graphic, ink, paper, open series, 2 images from a series of 16 variations, both sole copies. Approx. 36 x 25 cm each. Courtesy: the artist.
Feedback Untitled Page (1991) / Untitled (1989) / Boole Edition (1990) / Pen Plotter
Untitled Page, Diamond Lake Apocalypse Series. Ink, paper, pen plotter. 61 x 50.8 cm. Untitled. Ink, paper, pen plotter, paintbrush. 61 x 101.6 cm. Boole Edition. Ink, paper, leather, pen plotter. 22.9 x 50.8 cm. Pen Plotter. Houston Instruments DMP-52 Multipen Plotter. 81.6 x 33.3 cm.
Feedback Random War (1967)
Reprint 2006. IBM 7094, drum plotter. 110.5 x 244 cm. Reprint 2006: dye-sublimation on white aluminium. Courtesy: the artist.
Feedback focuses on art responsive to instructions, input, or its environment and creates one possible narrative of the multi-faceted histories of art that uses digital technologies as a medium.
Photo: Enrique Cárdenas


Feedback focuses on art responsive to instructions, input, or its environment and creates one possible narrative of the multi-faceted histories of art that uses digital technologies as a medium.


Photo: Enrique Cárdenas

FEEDBACK focuses on art responsive to instructions, input, or its environment and creates one possible narrative of the multi-faceted histories of art that uses digital technologies as a medium. FEEDBACK interweaves two themes relating to responsive art. One theme traces the concept of feedback from art based on instructions—be they natural language or code—to art that sets up open systems reacting to input from its immediate environment or the Internet. A second theme explores the concept of light and the moving object and image from Kinetic Art and Op Art to responsive notions of television and cinema. FEEDBACK links these themes in order to illuminate how different artistic practices developed over the past 50 years are interconnected and have informed each other. The exhibition is not a historical survey but features a selection of pieces that underscore how related ideas have been expressed at different points in time. Artworks are not presented in chronological order but in thematic groups or pairs that branch and connect.


Artists have used devices ranging from faxes and phones to satellite TVs in works that involve remote locations. In a 1978 report to the French president Giscard d’Estaing, Simon Nora and Alain Minc coined the term telematics for the combination of computers and telecommunications. Using ‘new technology’ such as video and satellites, artists in the 1970s began to experiment with ‘live performances’ and networks that anticipated the interactions currently taking place on the Internet. Digital technologies and the Internet have allowed for unprecedented possibilities of ‘being present’ in various locations at the same time.



In the 1940s, Norbert Wiener coined the term ‘cybernetics’—from the Greek term ‘kybernetes’ meaning ‘governor’ or ‘steersman’—to specify the important role that feedback plays in a communication system. In Cybernetics: or, Control and Communication in the Animal and the Machine (1948), Wiener defined three central concepts crucial to any organism or system: communication, control, and feedback. During the 1960s artists increasingly started to think about technological systems, the systems of the social world and aesthetic systems. In connection with movements such as Fluxus and Conceptualism, artists explored generative and ‘open systems’ for the creation of culturally and politically responsive art.


A set of instructions is the basis for many art works. Art created by the Dada movement in the early 20th century was often based upon formal instructions. In the 1960s, the Fluxus movement and conceptual art, such as Sol LeWitt’s wall drawings, emphasised variations of formal instructions and focused on concept, event, and audience participation as opposed to art as a unified object. Since the 1960s instruction-based artistic practice has been making use of computational procedures connected to output displays, from early plotter printers to digital screens and projections.


In scientific terms, kinetic energy is the energy possessed by a body by virtue of its motion, and kinetic art, which peaked from the middle 1960s to the middle 1970s, produces movement, often through machines activated by the viewer. Kinetic Art overlaps with the optical art or Op Art of the 1960s, in which artists such as Victor Vasarely, Julio Le Parc, and Nicolas Schöffer used patterns to create optical illusions of movement, vibration and warping. The term first appeared in print in Time magazine in October 1964, but works falling into the Op Art category were produced much earlier. The influence of the Kinetic and Op Art experiments with ‘machines’ that produced light and movement can be traced in many digital installations today.


Aspects of Kinetics and Op Art find their continuation in responsive forms of television and digital cinema that have been developed since the late 1960s. Artists have constructed moving images based on responses generated from the apparatus itself—such as TV sets or projectors driven by motion and vision tracking; through to the software-driven selection and manipulation of data; or navigation systems that allow the viewers’ bodies to drive and respond to the imagery.

Curated by:

Christiane Paul, Jemima Rellie, Charlie Gere

Artists: 5voltcore, Cory Arcangel, Boj & Diaz, Lygia Clark,Harold Cohen, Charles Csuri, Char Davies, Marcel Duchamp, Mary Flanagan, Hans Haacke, Edward Ihnatowicz, JODI, Hachiya Kazuhiko, Sol LeWitt, Jenny Marketou, Jennifer & Kevin McCoy, Chico MacMurtrie / Amorphic Robot Works, Lászlo Moholy-Nagy, Vera Molnar, Antoni Muntadas, Nam June Paik, Robert Rauschenberg, Casey Reas, David Rokeby, James Seawright, Paul Sermon, Marie Sester, Alejandro&Moira Sina, Christa Sommerer&Laurent Mignonneau, Wolfgang Staehle, Eddo Stern, Takis, Thomson&Craighead, Jean Tinguely, Roman Verostko, Victoria Vesna, Herwig Weiser

Exhibition design: Leeser Architecture

Spatial design: The Studio of Fernando Gutiérrez



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